Neptune Township Learning Disabilities

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Empowered Learning Transformation Centers

Empowered Learning Transformation Centers  is the nation's oldest learning disability advocacy organization.  We are the only voice of advocacy specifically for persons with learning disabilities and related neurological impairments with all levels of New Jersey government.  We fight everyday for the rights of children and adults to education, supports and services. Additionally, our prevention programs protects children from environmental toxins, fetal alcohol exposure and other causes of acquired learning disability.  Our advocacy depends on the generous donations of people like you.


Common Learning Disabilities

There are many different learning disabilities, each affecting specific skills necessary for learning. The following are some of the most common:


Learning Disabilities Defined

The term "learning disabilities" is an umbrella term used to describe an array of learning disorders. An individual may have one learning disability or more than one co-occurring learning disability. A learning disability is a life-long neurobiological disorder that affects the manner in which individuals with potentially normal or above average intelligence select, retain and express information. Incoming or outgoing information may become scrambled as it travels between the senses and the brain. In many cases, learning disabilities interfere with the development and use of language and the ability to speak, read, write, spell or perform math calculations. Learning disabilities can impact an individual's self-esteem, education, vocation, socialization and daily living activities.


Learning disabilities are "hidden" disabilities meaning you cannot look at a person and "see" that they have a disability.  Many individuals with learning disabilities have average to above-average IQs.  Individuals with learning disabilities exhibit patterns of strengths and weaknesses and the disability creates deficits in particular areas.


Learning disabilities are life-long.  They are not outgrown and they do not disappear when a child becomes an adult or leaves school.


Learning disabilities impact people in different ways. Some people are able to readily overcome the disability by learning compensatory strategies while others may need a higher level of supports and services.


Dyslexia – A language based disability in which a person has trouble understanding words, sentences or paragraphs.

Dysgraphia – A writing disability in which a person finds it difficult to form letters or write within a defined space.

Dyscalculia – A mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.

Dyspraxia – A speech disorder that interferes with a person's ability to correctly pronounce sounds, syllables and words. The area of the brain that tells the muscles how to move and what to do to make a particular sound or series of sounds is damaged or not fully developed.

Auditory, Memory and Processing Disabilities – a sensory disabilitiy in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.


Indicators of Learning Disabilities


 May have poor reading ability or poor comprehension

May often misread information

May have problems with syntax or grammar

May confuse similar letters or numbers, reverse them or confuse their order

May have difficulty reading addresses, small print and/or columns



May have difficulty writing ideas and/or organizing thoughts on paper

May reverse or omit letters, words or phrases when writing

May have problems with sentence structure, writing mechanics and organization

May frequently spell the same word differently in a single document

May read well but not write well (or vice versa)



May have difficulty with arithmetic, math language and math concepts

May reverse numbers

May have difficulty with time, sequencing and problem solving



May be able to explain things orally, but not in writing

May have difficulty telling or understanding jokes or stories

May misinterpret language or have poor comprehension of what is said

May respond in an inappropriate manner, unrelated to what is said, or only respond partially to what is said



May not respond to sounds of spoken language, or may consistently misunderstand what is being said

May be bothered by different frequencies of sound (i.e., music, vacuums, loud noises) or may be overly sensitive to sound

May have difficulty in differentiating sounds that occur simultaneously



May acquire new skills slowly

May have difficulty following directions, especially multiple directions

May experience visual spatial confusion (i.e., confuse right and left, up and down, under and over, behind and between)

May get lost in large buildings

May seem unaware of time or sequence of events



May perform similar tasks differently from day to day

May have trouble dialing phone numbers or holding a pen/pencil

May have poor coordination, be clumsy, unaware of physical surroundings or have a tendency to hurt his/herself



May be able to learn information presented in one way, but not in another

May find it difficult to memorize information (i.e., phone numbers, days of the week or months of the year)

May be unable to repeat what has just been said



May have difficulty following a schedule or being on time

May have trouble learning about time

May have difficulty organizing belongings



May have difficulty with social skills

May misinterpret non-verbal social cues

May experience social isolation

May not use appropriate eye contact



May have a short attention span or be impulsive

May have difficulty conforming to routines

May be easily distracted

May experience stress on extended mental effort


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